There are many friends who want to learn about and apply for a drone pilot license, but they find that there are several types of drones. They will be confused because they can’t distinguish their characteristics and applications for a while. Then let the editor briefly take everyone to understand the differences and characteristics between them, and also a simple reference for those who want to enter the drone industry and those who need to obtain relevant certificates for drones.
The characteristics of a UAV (fixed wing, helicopter, multi-rotor)
01 Fixed Wing
Fixed-wing UAVs have the longest endurance of these three types of UAVs, the highest flight efficiency, the largest load, and high flight stability. However, they must use the runway to run or take off with equipment (ejection, hand Throwing), you must slide a distance or parachute when landing.
Unmanned helicopters can take off, land and hover vertically, do not need a runway, and have strong terrain adaptability, but their mechanical structure is complex, operation is difficult, maintenance costs are high, and their endurance and speed are lower than fixed-wing UAVs.
Multi-rotor drones can also achieve vertical take-off and landing, and have a simple mechanical structure, no mechanical wear, and flexible operation, but the endurance and load capacity are the lowest among the three aircraft.
Comparative analysis of two advantages and disadvantages
01 Endurance and load capacity
Fixed-wing UAVs can cruise with lower power, while the lift generated by the propellers of unmanned helicopters and multi-rotor UAVs must always be greater than or equal to the weight of the fuselage. Efficiency is the highest. Unmanned helicopters are more aerodynamically efficient than multi-rotor drones.
02 takeoff and landing
The take-off and landing of fixed-wing UAVs must use runways or professional equipment, so the convenience of take-off and landing is the worst. Both multi-rotor UAVs and unmanned helicopters are rotary-wing aircraft and can be vertical. Take-off and landing are very convenient.
03 Control difficulty
Multi-rotor drones with flight control systems are simple to take off and land, easy to operate, and the operating difficulty is the lowest. Fixed-wing UAVs have a high degree of difficulty for take-off and landing, but aerial control is easier to learn. The unmanned helicopter has a complicated mechanical structure and the most difficult to control.
Basic requirements for “Drone Driving License”:
1. Be at least 18 years old and have no criminal record
2, have junior high school education;
3. Can read, listen, speak and write Chinese correctly, without affecting the accent and stuttering of two-way radio conversations;
4. Corrected vision above 1.0, no color blindness, color weakness, no infectious diseases, no cardiovascular and cerebrovascular and mental diseases, no limbs, no bad habits. ※caution! In one of the following situations, you are not allowed to apply for a driver’s certificate! Have quality heart disease, epilepsy, Meniere’s disease, vertigo, hysteria, tremor paralysis, mental illness, dementia, and neurological diseases that affect the movement of the limbs and other diseases that hinder safe flight; smoking, injecting drugs, long-term dependence Psychotropic addiction has not been quit.
AOPA, UTC, ASFC on the market
The difference between the three drone driving licenses
1. AOPA: The predecessor of the drone pilot license of the Civil Aviation Administration of China is the AOPA certificate. AOPA of China, the Aircraft Owners Pilots Association Of China (AOPA-China) ewatt UAV, was established on August 17, 2004. ewatt unmanned Aircraft is a national industry association supervised by the Civil Aviation Administration of China and a national member of the International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (IAOPA). It is the only legal entity in China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau). representative. Since April 2014, the Civil Aviation Administration of China has entrusted China AOPA to be responsible for drone pilot qualification and training.
After September 1, 2018, if you pass the AOPA exam, the CAAC will directly issue a cloud license, which is the most authoritative and has the highest gold content. The current situation is that the drone license exam is passed and the drone cloud license can be obtained. If you want an AOPA qualification certificate, you only need to pay a certification fee after passing the exam and it will be mailed to the destination.
The level of drone driver’s license is mainly divided into three types of driver’s license levels: in-line driver (former drone driver), over-the-horizon driver (former drone captain) and instructor.
2. ASFC: The Chinese Aviation Sports Association issued a model license, which can only be used for performances, training, competitions, and not for commercial activities. If you want to engage in drone flight and business, you need Obtained a cloud license from the Civil Aviation Administration.
3. UTC: Skill certificate jointly certified by DJI, China Air Transport Association General Aviation Branch (CATAGA) and China Adult Education Association (CAEA).
What is included in the AOPA drone driving license test? What is the examination process?
The first level, theory test
100 multiple choice questions. Choose the correct one from the three options. It’s similar to the test for a car driver’s license, but the difference is that even if you don’t memorize the question bank, you can get 50 or 60 points based on basic common sense, but AOPA’s 100 questions, if you don’t understand this One line, if you don’t understand the principle of drones, and don’t look at the question bank, you really might not be able to do a single question. Very professional.
100 points for 100 questions, the pilot is qualified with 70 points or more, and the captain is qualified with 80 points or more.
Second level, oral exam
Said it is an oral test, but in fact it is also a computer-based test. The number of questions is 10, and at least 7 correct answers are required to pass. The test format is the same as the theory test. Answer the questions on the computer.
The third level, practical exam
Each examinee must complete two consecutive flight actions under the examiner’s gaze: in-situ 360-degree spin and “8” flying (the left and right circles are 6m in diameter);
Fly in GPS mode within line of sight;
Fly in attitude mode beyond visual range;
There are two more assessment items for over-the-horizon drivers: 1. Ground station drawing
The candidate uses the ground station software to plan the route according to the examiner’s questions, and debug the ground station software. The route planning time is 6 minutes, and the route planning is completed in accordance with the route direction, altitude, horizontal speed, and stay time required by the examiner.
2. Emergency operation procedures (blind flight)
(1) Perform emergency return operation at the ground station as required by the examiner, and the operation time is required to be no more than 15 seconds;
(2) To simulate the emergency situation of position signal loss, only refer to the UAV’s heading, attitude and speed information displayed by the ground station, and control the UAV to return home in the attitude mode. The following requirements need to be met: ① The examiner obscures the track or aircraft position information and instructs the student to return home; ② The student should operate the drone to return home in an emergency, and the heading and straight-line homing course angle error within 30 seconds after the switching attitude mode It should not exceed ±45°; ③Refer to the attitude, track, heading, altitude and other information displayed by the ground station, and keep the flight within ±5 meters of the route altitude; ④The examiner restores the track or position display, and the student is in a safe condition Control the drone to return to the field, switch the control mode according to the examiner’s password to land.